Global climate change is predicted to result in increased incidence of summer droughts and extreme weather events such as flooding in winter (Gates 1993; IPCC 2001; MoE 2007). In the eastern United States, Crawford and Semlitsch (2007) found that 95% of observations of four stream-breeding salamanders occurred within 27 m of the stream edge. Options for the province to directly purchase land at key sites should also be explored, especially within the western and northwestern portions of the species' range at low to moderate elevations where development is proceeding at rapid pace. 1989. Ottawa. Springer, New York. Terrestrial adults are robust and broad-headed; the colour is dark brown to black on the back usually with tan or copper marbling. 2013). This activity can result in the direct loss of critical habitat, or could degrade habitat to a point where it no longer meets the needs of the species, e.g., by altering local microsite conditions, hydrology and/or water quality (see below). 1948. Current mining from the watershed is primarily for the extraction of sand and gravel resources. Communication to E. Wind. Univ. Power projects that impact mid-elevation, forested streams via the construction of roads, power houses, transmission lines, pipelines, and weirs, as well as changing in-stream water flows may contribute to greater habitat fragmentation for Coastal Giant Salamander in the Chilliwack Valley. Noms français standardisés des amphibiens et des reptiles d'Amérique du Nord au nord du Méxique. Feral D., M.A. Leuthold et al. Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada, Waterton, Alberta. BCIT - Fish, Wildlife & Recreation Student, Vancouver, BC. Sub-adults are extremely important for maintaining population size, demographic structure, and genetic variability, and they represent recruits to the breeding population. 1995. Helbing, K. Werry, and N. Veldhoen. Northwest Sci. Welstead, K., pers. Larvae caught in subsequent years were frequently found in the same site (within ± 2 m), providing no evidence of seasonal migration. In British Columbia, larvae are rarely detected in streams until water temperatures rise above 5°C, and they become sluggish at temperatures >20°C, suggesting these temperatures approximate the limit of their thermal tolerance. 13 p. Clothier, G.W. (Welstead unpublished data 2016) and have been trapped at least 400 m from the stream edge (the furthest pit-fall trap distance in the study) in Oregon (McComb et al. [SBC 2003] Chapter 80. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis surveillance in British Columbia 2008 - 2009, Canada. Appl. Victoria, British Columbia. Unpublished directed studies report, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Studies indicate that edge effects on microclimate can extend far into the forest interior, depending on site-specific conditions (Chen et al. 1998. data. >10, Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in extent of occurrence? Further details can be found in the preceding/next paragraph(s). Although their movements are difficult to study directly, terrestrial Coastal Giant Salamanders appear to be poor dispersers. Aho. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada species assessment information, 4. Table 3. Observations of Coastal Giant Salamanders have been recorded from the majority of larger watersheds within the Chilliwack drainage, but the degree of connectivity between sites is unknown. Habitat connectivity through upland is disrupted by extensive logging and other habitat disturbance, while presence of predatory fish probably curtails dispersal along larger streams to other sub-drainages. The estimate for neotenes was based on the assumption that 0.5-1% of aquatic salamanders are neotenes multiplied by a further assumption of the total number of aquatic salamanders in B.C. Fine sediments fill in interstitial spaces among rocks with the stream substrate, so reducing or eliminating refuges that are critical for salamander larvae. Logging also alters the structure of the forest floor (i.e., changes in ground cover and amount and distribution of coarse woody debris) potentially limiting the availability and type of shelters for terrestrial salamanders. The giant salamanders I'd seen previously were sizeable, but not exactly deserving the title. 2005). Within the Chilliwack River drainage area where it occurs, the Coastal Giant Salamander requires both aquatic habitat (for reproduction as well as foraging, refuge and overwintering of larvae and neotenesFootnote 4 ) and surrounding terrestrial habitat (for foraging, refuge, and overwintering) to complete life history functions.
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